Anxiety, Depression and Anger: Application of a Bifactor Model to Identify Common Symptoms
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Pontificia Universidad Católica Madre y Maestra
Universidad Siglo 21
Zoilo Emilio Garcia-Batista   

Pontificia Universidad Católica Madre y Maestra
Submission date: 2020-10-18
Final revision date: 2021-04-12
Acceptance date: 2021-05-03
Online publication date: 2021-12-23
Publication date: 2021-12-23
Arch Psych Psych 2021;23(4):7–12
Aim of the study:
Anger manifestations, depression and anxiety are strongly related to individual´s discomfort and well-being. The aim of the present study is to investigate the fit of a bifactor model applied on emotional disposition measures emphasizing the specification of a general factor through the identification of specific responses or indicators that can account for the communality between depression, anxiety and anger.

Subject or material and methods:
One thousand and thirty-four participants from Dominican Republic took part in the study. They were selected by an accidental non-probabilistic sampling procedure. The ages of the participants were between 18 and 80 years old (Mean = 30.85, Standard Deviation = 15.39). Regarding gender, 45.9% (n = 374) were male and 54.1% (n = 441) female.

The results obtained show two large groups of indicators that would be common in these affective disposition types: affective and cognitive responses.

On the one hand, affective responses include agitation, irritability, and tension or nervousness.

On the other hand, cognitive symptoms are linked to the presence of repetitive worrying and uncontrollable thoughts. In this way, it is possible to identify a general stress response in this group of indicators.