Masculinity, femininity, self-appeal, strategies of self-presentation and styles of interpersonal functioning in transsexual women
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Department of Social and Environmental Psychology Institute of Psychology University of Silesia Katowice Poland
Submission date: 2015-05-13
Final revision date: 2015-06-15
Acceptance date: 2015-07-05
Publication date: 2015-10-19
Corresponding author
Eugenia Mandal   

Department of Social and Environmental Psychology Institute of Psychology University of Silesia Katowice Poland, ul. Grażyńskiego 53, 40-126 Katowice, Poland
Arch Psych Psych 2015;17(3):5-13
Aim of the study:
The aim of the study was to explore potential differences in gender identity and styles of interpersonal functioning between transsexual and non-transsexual women.

Subject or material and methods:
The studied group consisted of 32 adult transwomen, and the control group consisted 32 adult biological women. The following tests were used: the Bem Sex Role Inventory (Polish version, Kuczyńska, 1992) , Scale of Self Appeal (Mandal, Zalewska, 2010), the Interpersonal Styles Scale (Stanik, 1998), and the Strategies of Self-Presentation Questionnaire (Mandal, Zalewska, 2010).

The transsexual women scored higher on the femininity scale than the non-transsexual women. The same situation occurred in the case of the use of the maintaining-overprotective style, submissive-dependent style and conformism scales. While the non-transsexual women scored higher in the directive-autocratic style, aggressive-sadistic style, competitive-narcissistic style, partner attractiveness and self-promotion scales. However, statistically significant differences between the groups did not occur in masculinity, adonization, interpersonal attractiveness, appreciation of the partner, self-depreciation, the withdrawing-masochistic style, the rebellious-suspicious style, self-acceptance/complacency, pessimism/helplessness/cry for help, lie, the friendly-cooperative style and the resourcefulness/realism/autonomy scales.

The study revealed that transsexual women experience themselves and the surrounding world more in accord to the stereotype of what is feminine than non-transsexual women. Such was the case with the way they function interpersonally. Styles that they employ to a higher degree usually do not contain components of dominance and the need for autonomy but rather the need for affiliation and considerateness.

Transwomen function more in accordance with the stereotype of femininity than biological women.

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